Published in Science in 2015, the TOP guidelines include eight modular standards, each with three levels of increasing stringency.
Journals select which of the eight transparency standards they wish to adopt for their journal, and select a level of implementation for each standard. These features provide flexibility for adoption depending on disciplinary variation, but simultaneously establish community standards.
Eight Standards at Three Levels of Increasing Rigor
Standards: Data Citation | Data, Materials, and Code Transparency | Design and Analysis | Preregistration | Replication
Levels: Disclose, Require, or Verify
Best Practices for Journals and Publishers
Requiring more transparent research practices, with reasonable exceptions for difficult situations, is possible. This set of standards require open data, research materials, and analytic code, while encouraging disclosure of additional steps that can increase the credibility of inferential research.
Level 2 for Data Citation and Data, Materials, Code, and Design Standards; Level 1 for Preregistration and Replication
News and Updates
- See how Cancer Research UK is partnering with Nicotine & Tobacco Research to increase efficiency, reduce bias, and increase rigor with this Registered Reports partnership.
- Springer Nature's recent editorial about the TOP Guidelines.
- American Journal of Political Science's recent discussion of the challenges and benefits of adopting TOP.
Become a Signatory
Over 2,900 journals and organizations have already become signatories of the TOP Guidelines. Show your support of the principles behind the standards by becoming a signatory today. We'll reach out and help to implement the standards that are most appropriate to the work that you fund or publish.
For inquiries, please contact David Mellor
or email firstname.lastname@example.org